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5. Implementation of main fiscal and tax policies and other major fiscal work in 2018

(五)2018年主要财税政策落实和重点财政工作情况。
In 2018, finance departments conscientiously implemented the policy decisions and plans of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, followed the Budget Law and the Guidelines on People's Congresses Expanding the Focus of Their Budget Review and Oversight to Cover Expenditure Budgets and Policies, and acted on the requirements in the budget resolution adopted at the NPC. We have enforced a proactive fiscal policy with the focus on concentrating fiscal strength and boosting fiscal efficacy, increased support for the three critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution, weighted spending toward innovation-driven development, agriculture, rural areas, rural residents, and the improvement of living standards, deepened reform of the fiscal and tax systems, and worked vigorously to improve management of budget execution.
2018年,财政部门认真贯彻党中央、国务院决策部署,按照预算法和《关于人大预算审查监督重点向支出预算和政策拓展的指导意见》,落实全国人大预算决议要求,聚力增效实施积极的财政政策,加大对三大攻坚战的支持,更多向创新驱动、“三农”、民生等领域倾斜,深化财税体制改革,狠抓预算执行管理。
We took strong measures to cut taxes and fees. Improving the VAT system
大力实施减税降费。完善增值税制度。
We lowered VAT rates in industries such as manufacturing, transportation, construction, and basic telecommunication services as well as for agricultural products and other goods, and adopted a unified annual sales threshold of 5 million yuan for small-scale VAT payers. The end-of-tax-period VAT credit was refunded in one lump sum to qualified enterprises in equipment manufacturing and other advanced manufacturing industries and in research and development (R&D) and other modern service industries, as well as to power grid enterprises.
降低制造业、交通运输、建筑、基础电信服务等行业及农产品等货物的增值税税率,统一增值税小规模纳税人标准至500万元,对装备制造等先进制造业、研发等现代服务业符合条件企业和电网企业的期末留抵税额予以一次性退还。
Implementing individual income tax reform
实施个人所得税改革。
Implementing the revised Individual Income Tax Law, we raised the individual income tax threshold and optimized the structure of tax rates, starting from October 1, 2018. On this basis, we formulated the interim measures for special additional deductions for individual income tax, creating six special additional deduction items including children's education, and amended the implementation regulations for the Individual Income Tax Law, which officially went into effect on January 1, 2019. This represents a major shift from a system of classified taxes to a system of taxation that is based on both adjusted gross income and specific income types, benefiting approximately 80 million taxpayers.
修改个人所得税法,自2018年10月1日起,提高基本减除费用标准,调整优化税率结构,在此基础上研究制定个人所得税专项附加扣除暂行办法,设立子女教育等6项专项附加扣除,修订个人所得税法实施条例,自2019年1月1日起正式实施,实现从分类税制向综合与分类相结合税制的重大转变,惠及约8000万纳税人。
Increasing tax support for small and micro businesses
加大小微企业税收支持力度。
More low-profit small businesses now enjoy halved corporate income tax, with the upper limit of taxable annual income raised from 500,000 yuan to 1,000,000 yuan. We raised the single-client credit line on which the interest income is eligible for VAT exemption from 1 million yuan to 10 million yuan in loans made to qualified small and micro businesses and self-employed people.
将享受减半征收企业所得税优惠政策的小型微利企业年应纳税所得额上限由50万元提高到100万元,将符合条件的小微企业和个体工商户贷款利息收入免征增值税单户授信额度上限由100万元提高到1000万元。
Encouraging enterprises to increase investment in research and development
鼓励企业加大研发投入。
We abolished the restrictions on additional tax deductions for R&D costs for those enterprises who entrust their R&D work to overseas contractors. The policy of additional tax deductions for 75% of R&D expenses for small and medium sci-tech enterprises was extended to cover all enterprises. The period for rollover of losses was extended from 5 years to 10 years for new- and high-tech enterprises and small and medium sci-tech enterprises. A one-off tax deduction in the year of purchase will be offered to enterprises for new instrument or equipment purchases of less than 5 million yuan in unit price.
取消企业委托境外研发费用不得加计扣除限制,将企业研发费用加计扣除比例提高到75%的政策由科技型中小企业扩大至所有企业,将高新技术企业和科技型中小企业的亏损结转年限由5年延长至10年,对企业新购进单位价值不超过500万元的设备、器具允许当年一次性税前扣除。
Adjusting and improving import and export tax policies
调整完善进出口税收政策。
Export rebate rates were raised for over 4,000 products in two batches and the rebate rate structure was simplified. We accorded zero tariff treatment to the vast majority of imported medicine including anticancer drugs, and lowered import tariffs for whole vehicles and auto parts, as well as for some non-durable consumer goods and manufactured goods. China's overall tariff level has been lowered from 9.8% in 2017 to 7.5% in 2018.
分两批对4000多项产品提高出口退税率并简化退税率结构。对包括抗癌药在内的绝大多数进口药品实施零关税,降低汽车整车及零部件、部分日用消费品和工业品进口关税,我国关税总水平由2017年的9.8%降至7.5%。
Taking further steps to tidy up regulations for the levying of charges on enterprises
进一步清理规范涉企收费。
A number of administrative charges were abolished, including the processing fee paid by first-time applicants for citizen identity cards. We lowered the required payments to some government-managed funds such as the major water conservancy projects fund. Further, we extended the validity period of the policies of temporarily reducing social insurance premiums and lowering the proportion that enterprises contribute to the housing provident fund. These efforts to reduce taxes and fees led to a relief of burdens by around 1.3 trillion yuan over the year.
停征首次申领居民身份证工本费等一批行政事业性收费,降低重大水利工程建设基金等部分政府性基金征收标准,延长阶段性降低社会保险费率和企业住房公积金缴存比例政策期限。上述减税降费措施全年减负约1.3万亿元。
We achieved significant success in the three critical battles. Strengthening prevention and control of local government debt risk
推动三大攻坚战取得明显成效。加强地方政府债务风险防控。
Actions were taken to impose ceilings on local government debt and incorporate them into budget management, and the work on issuing local government bonds to replace outstanding debt was basically completed. We supported the issuance and use of special bonds by local governments and attained the goal of issuing 1.35 trillion yuan of special bonds two months ahead of schedule. We have improved management measures to put under strict control the risks related to special bonds within the statutory debt ceilings. We rolled out measures for the disclosure of local government debt information and guided local governments in the orderly release of information regarding the remaining balance of debt ceilings, bond issuance and arrangements for fund usage, and repayment of principal and interests.
落实地方政府债务限额管理和预算管理,地方政府存量债务置换基本完成。支持地方做好专项债券发行和使用,提前两个月完成1.35万亿元的发行目标,完善管理措施,严控法定限额内专项债务风险。出台地方政府债务信息公开办法,指导地方有序公开债务限额余额、债券发行和资金使用安排、债务还本付息等信息。
We further refined oversight and regulatory policies for hidden debt-related risks facing local governments, and further strengthened risk prevention and control at the supply end of funds and at the source of project construction. Intensifying oversight and accountability and setting up mechanisms for lifelong accountability and the retroactive investigation of liability, we organized investigations into illegal and regulation-breaking borrowing by some cities, counties, and financial institutions, publicly exposing those cases. We improved the statistical and monitoring mechanisms and gave timely warnings about debt risk, and we urged local governments to perform their due responsibilities within their geographical jurisdiction and succeeded in forestalling systemic risks.
进一步完善地方政府隐性债务风险监管政策,加强资金供给端、项目建设源头风险防控。强化监督问责,配合建立终身问责、倒查责任机制,组织核查部分市县和金融机构违法违规举债行为,并公开通报曝光。健全统计监测机制,及时警示债务风险。督促地方落实属地管理责任,牢牢守住不发生系统性风险的底线。
Providing strong support in the fight against poverty
大力支持脱贫攻坚。
The central government allocated 106.095 billion yuan to subsidize local poverty alleviation funds, an increase of 20 billion yuan, or 23.2%, over 2017. The increase in funds was mainly directed to areas of extreme poverty such as the three regions and the three prefectures. We advanced trials across the country to integrate different rural development funds in poverty-stricken counties with merged funds surpassing 300 billion yuan for the year.
中央财政补助地方专项扶贫资金1060.95亿元,增加200亿元,增长23.2%,增加的资金重点用于“三区三州”等深度贫困地区。全面推进贫困县涉农资金整合试点,全年整合资金超过3000亿元。
We strictly controlled financing risks related to poverty alleviation, and replaced loans used to relocate people from inhospitable areas and other financing forms with a unified form of financing through issuance of local government bonds. We explored the establishment of mechanisms for dynamic monitoring of budgetary funds for poverty alleviation and strengthened management of government poverty alleviation funds of all kinds and at all levels. We formulated measures for performance-based management of budgetary funds in poverty alleviation projects, and basicallyachieved full coverage of performance targets, involving around 110,000 projects with an amount of over 800 billion yuan. A total of 13.86 million rural people were lifted out of poverty over the year.
严控扶贫领域融资风险,将易地扶贫搬迁贷款融资等统一调整规范为发行地方政府债券融资。探索建立财政扶贫资金动态监控机制,加强各级各类财政扶贫资金管理。制定财政扶贫项目资金绩效管理办法,绩效目标管理基本实现全覆盖,涉及约11万个扶贫项目、8000多亿元。全年减少农村贫困人口1386万。
Intensifying pollution prevention and control efforts
加大污染防治力度。
Around 255.5 billion yuan was allocated from the central budget to support the critical battle against pollution; this was a year-on-year increase of 13.9% and it included the largest investment toward addressing air, water, and soil pollution in recent years. We expanded the range of central government-financed trials to promote clean energy sources for winter heating across northern China, put in place incentivizing policies for the protection and restoration of ecosystems along the Yangtze Economic Belt, and established a compensation system for fishing bans in key waters of the Yangtze River basin. We launched models for treatment of black, malodorous water bodies in urban areas, and supported the enhancement of quality and efficacy in urban sewage treatment in the central and western regions. We entered 14 trial projects, including those at the eastern foot of the Helan Mountains in Ningxia and in the Wumeng mountainous areas in Guizhou, into the third group of pilot projects under the initiative to protect and restore mountain, water, forest, farmland, lake, and grassland ecosystems. Together with the previous two groups of 11 trial projects, these projects basically cover the key zones of the two ecological shields and three ecological belts.
中央财政支持污染防治攻坚战相关资金约2555亿元,增长13.9%,其中大气、水、土壤污染防治投入力度为近年来最大。扩大中央财政支持北方地区冬季清洁取暖试点范围。实施促进长江经济带生态保护修复奖励政策,建立长江流域重点水域禁捕补偿制度。启动城市黑臭水体治理示范,支持中西部地区城镇污水处理提质增效。将宁夏贺兰山东麓、贵州乌蒙山区等14个项目纳入第三批山水林田湖草生态保护修复工程试点,加上前两批11个试点项目,基本涵盖了“两屏三带”的生态功能区块。
We supported the deepening of supply-side structural reform. Promoting capacity building for scientific and technological innovations
支持深化供给侧结构性改革。推进科技创新能力建设。
The central general public budget saw a 10.3% increase in expenditure on science and technology. We supported the implementation of major national science and technology programs and conducted trials on selected programs of a "green channel" based on integrity and performance. We supervised management reform of the funding for central government-funded scientific and technological research projects, launching a series of new measures to optimize project and economic management, reduce report forms and process reviews, and promote performance evaluation. We encouraged institutions of higher learning and research institutes in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions to take part in the organization and implementation of central government-funded science and technology programs (projects and funds).
中央一般公共预算本级科学技术支出增长10.3%。支持实施国家科技重大专项,并选取部分专项探索开展基于诚信和绩效的“绿色通道”试点。开展中央财政科研项目资金管理改革督察,在优化科研项目和经费管理、减少报表和过程检查、推进科研项目绩效评价等方面推出一系列新举措。鼓励香港、澳门特别行政区高等院校和科研机构参与中央财政科技计划(专项、基金等)组织实施。
Supporting the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing sector
支持制造业转型升级。
We promoted the development of smart manufacturing, strong foundations for industry development, green manufacturing, and the industrial internet, and supported manufacturing innovation centers in improving their capacities. We implemented the policy on piloting insurance compensation for newly-developed major technological equipment, supporting and promoting a total of 1,087 projects with over 150 billion-yuan worth of equipment.
推动智能制造、工业强基、绿色制造和工业互联网发展,支持制造业创新中心加强能力建设。落实首台(套)重大技术装备保险补偿试点政策,累计支持推广1087个项目,涉及装备价值总额1500多亿元。
Stimulating the drive for innovation and entrepreneurship
激发创业创新活力。
We supported 100 real-economy development zones at national and provincial levels in developing platforms with distinctive features and we facilitated the efforts of small and medium-sized enterprises to upgrade the national initiative to promote business startups and innovation. We set up a national financing guaranty fund to enhance our capacity to serve small and micro businesses and serve agriculture, rural areas, and rural residents. We provided rewards and subsidies to regions that achieved clear results in expanding the scale of financing guaranties and reducing guaranty fees for small and micro businesses.
支持100个国家级、省级实体经济开发区打造特色载体,助推中小企业“双创”升级。设立国家融资担保基金,提升服务小微企业和“三农”等的能力。对扩大小微企业融资担保业务规模、降低小微企业融资担保费率成效明显的地方予以奖补激励。
Carrying out the five priority tasks
落实“三去一降一补”重点任务。
We introduced policies on further cutting overcapacity and restructuring the debts of "zombie enterprises," and continued to support the de-escalation of overcapacity in the steel and coal industries. Active progress was made in the central government's efforts to address "zombie enterprises" and improve those enterprises in particular difficulty. We redoubled efforts to strengthen key areas of weakness, fully exerting central government investment in infrastructure.
出台推进去产能和“僵尸企业”债务重组相关政策,继续支持钢铁、煤炭行业化解过剩产能,中央企业处置“僵尸企业”和治理特困企业工作取得积极进展。加大重点领域补短板力度,发挥中央基建投资作用。
We regulated and promoted the application of the public-private partnership (PPP) model in an orderly fashion. By the end of 2018, of all the projects in the database of the national information platform for multiple PPP models, 4,691 were in progress, involving an aggregate investment of 7.2 trillion yuan, and accounting for 54.2% of the total.
规范有序推进政府和社会资本合作(PPP),截至2018年末,全国PPP综合信息平台项目管理库累计落地项目4691个、投资额7.2万亿元,落地率54.2%。
Promoting coordinated development between regions and between urban and rural areas
促进城乡区域协调发展。
To consistently strengthen support for central and western regions, the central government increased transfer payments to help equalize access to basic public services by 9.2%, and increased payments for old revolutionary base areas, areas with large ethnic minority populations, border areas, and poor areas by 15.7%. We set up a policy system for financial support to Xiongan New Area in its initial stage of planning and construction, and conducted studies on fiscal policies to support major regional strategies such as comprehensively deepening reform and opening up in Hainan Province. We established and implemented sound mechanisms for guaranteeing government funding for the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. We put in place mechanisms for national coordination of newly-added cropland and for inter-provincial adjustment of quotas produced by linking newly-added cropland quotas with the amount of land used for construction. We accelerated our efforts to reduce excess stockpiles of grain, refined price-setting mechanisms for rice and other types of grain, promoted development of the quality grain project in all its aspects, and supported the deepening of supply-side structural reform in agriculture.
中央财政均衡性转移支付增长9.2%,老少边穷地区转移支付增长15.7%,不断加大对中西部地区的支持力度。构建雄安新区规划建设起步阶段财政支持政策体系,研究对海南全面深化改革开放等重大区域战略财政支持政策。建立健全实施乡村振兴战略财政投入保障制度。建立跨省域补充耕地国家统筹机制和城乡建设用地增减挂钩节余指标跨省域调剂机制。加快消化粮食库存,完善稻谷等粮食价格形成机制,全面推进优质粮食工程建设,支持深化农业供给侧结构性改革。

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insurance [in'ʃuərəns]

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n. 保险,保险费,安全措施

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instrument ['instrumənt]

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n. 乐器,工具,仪器,器械

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minority [mai'nɔ:riti]

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n. 少数,少数民族,未成年

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provincial [prə'vinʃəl]

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n. 乡下人,地方人民
adj. 省的,地方的

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scale [skeil]

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n. 鳞,刻度,衡量,数值范围
v. 依比例决

 
interim ['intərim]

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adj. 中间的,暂时的,临时的
n. 中间时

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financing [fai'nænsiŋ]

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n. 融资,资金供应 动词finance的现在分词

 
strict [strikt]

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adj. 严格的,精确的,完全的

 
inhospitable [in'hɔspitəbl]

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adj. 冷淡的,不好客的;荒凉的;不适居留的

 
specific [spi'sifik]

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adj. 特殊的,明确的,具有特效的
n. 特

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